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Local budgets are ratified by local governing bodies and are an integral part of the state budget of each country.

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In conjunction with the administrative-territorial division of the USSR, each krai, oblast, okrug, raion, city, and settlement and rural soviet has its own local budget. These budgets are organically linked to and included in the state budgets of the Union republics, which in turn are part of the state budget of the USSR.

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In this way the unity of the budgetary system of the USSR is reinforced. Local budgets, including the budgets of autonomous republics, increased in size from 6. In they amounted to more than one-third of the overall total of the budgets of the Union republics and about one-fifth of the total of the state budget of the USSR. Local budgets finance enterprises and economic organizations under the jurisdiction of local Soviets, sociocultural institutions including schools, kindergartens, and hospitals , and local governing bodies.

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In local budget expenditures included 9. Local budget revenues are derived from enterprises under local jurisdiction payments from the profits of industrial, construction, communal, commercial, and other enterprises , rent, and local taxes and charges.


Moreover, local budgets receive deductions from state taxes and revenues in defined amounts in the territory of corresponding administrative unit including the turnover tax, the population income tax, and the kolkhoz income tax. This raises the incentive of local Soviets to fulfill the plan for national state revenues and taxes. Some of the profit payments from enterprises of republic jurisdiction may also be entered into local budgets. Such entries may also be made for raion, rural, and settlement budgets from supplementary sums of turnover taxes, depending on the amounts of commodity turnover of consumer cooperation organizations.

Between and the rights of local Soviets were significantly expanded, thereby strengthening their material-financial base. In capitalist countries local budgets represent annual estimates of probable receipts and expenditures of local administrative bodies. They are confirmed by local bodies and are not included in the structure of state budgets that is, formally they are kept separate.

In her remarks she acknowledged that oftentimes the non-mandated services keep the costs of mandated services down. Regarding uncertainty at the state and federal level, Keenan affirmed her office is constantly monitoring changes to state and federal spending, and tries to plan for every possible scenario. The more information her office has on agencies it funds, the better positioned it is to support the needs of those agencies.

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The state budget is certainly a statement of policy priorities, but to get a sense of what these priorities are, Director Keen says one has to look in the margins. Director Keen used Medicaid as an example underscoring how difficult it is to make anything greater than marginal changes to major government programs. Such a move, he said, would put hundreds of thousands at risk while destabilizing hospital budgets.

The financial feedback on the adopted budget is provided to both elected officials and administrators, based on an annual audit that is typically conducted by an outside independent auditor. Operating Environment.


These factors include its political environment, its economic environment, its social environment, and its legal environment. All of these factors are interrelated and greatly influence all phases of the organization's annual budget process.

While elected officials and their administrators have an influence on their internal environment, they have little control over their external environment. The Future. Elected officials typically create the political orientation of their organization, its political environment.

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While some local governments are liberal and others are conservative, many represent both political perspectives. Yet others change their political perspective over time. Most of these other, primarily external, sub-systems change slowly over time.

Local public officials, both elected and appointed, generally have little influence over these levels of government and usually only react and adapt to their respective mandates, available grants, and legal requirements.