This road-map is step-by-step presented and conclusively supported in Fig. In Fig. To further proceed with understanding, it is now necessary to apply the relevant laws and principles arrow 2 and to express them mathematically arrow 3 before obtaining the results arrow 4.
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In order to work according to this methodology, we need to implement the systemic characteristics, predicates, attributes, qualities or properties as part of the systemic experiences that control the evolution of the phenomena within a given system, placed at a particular environment. Furthermore, we also wish to propose a comprehensive methodology for fully meeting the research requirements. The scheme of such a system is given in Fig.
The main knowledge classes of this scheme will be further discussed in the fol- lowing section. In particular, matter, which in the case of packed food refers to all the materials constituting the system, consists of the following essential groups or knowledge classes that are actually developed with: i each and every experience, or empirical evidence, ii the properties, iii the qualities, and iv the characteristics, for any systemic possibility in general.
Based on the above scheme, experimenters essentially modify the. These are the conditions under which the phenomena may be expressed or have an impact on the level of their expression. That research interest could be fully and clearly revealed via this approach, i. These conditions shall become appropriate for experimentation, directly linked to the measured empiricism and from that to the knowledge classes and systemic categories.
Have we all the information for replicating an experiment? How can we trust the differences in tools and equipment, conditions and materials we are using in relation to those having been used by others? How may the experimental set-ups be compared among each other? Have we in the end wasted our research efforts and resources or have we actually achieved to look behind the closed curtains of the phenomena and reveal a hidden stage of physical activities, systemic performances, theoretical extensions or mismatches?
Furthermore, how could we really comment on their similarity level and how may we select the one to implement against the other? Therefore, in the following section of this book, we shall try to approach the answers, yet, not answering them in a unique way, which is left to each one with the interest to do so. We certainly have to ask ourselves about the origin of a phenomenon, its originality and uniqueness and furthermore, our ability to be present during its occurrence and evolution, or whether we may reproduce a phenomenon under our supervision within certain space and time.
It is expected that despite of whatever a philosophical explanation might do, it should always account for the way things seem like to the spectator, to us. Meanwhile, an aspect of a phenomenon apparent at one level might not be apparent to another. The discussion regarding the creation of a phenomenon attracts an increased interest and becomes more meaningful in the case that a phenomenon may be reported, recorded, or even reproduced, though no solid theory is available to explain it, or embrace it within its establishments.
Whether such a theory may ever be completed is an additional issue. Although, on the other hand, many phenomena were created after a theory had been established and accepted. At the same time, there are theoretical entities which are used during the experiments in order to facilitate their functionality, support the conclusions and establish new theoretical relationships, via practical handling of such entities see the entities used in modern physics regarding the structure of the matter. In other words, during the experimentation, we may use the theoretical entities, or even prepare them and handle under certain conditions based on their known properties.
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The aforemen- tioned properties may have previously derived from pre-experiments and they may now be used as reasoned properties for the new experiments. In that sense, these properties are phenomena by themselves. Then, creating phenomena is based on the capability of isolating and use of these properties, as raw materials for creating and reproducing new phenomena. Then the theoretical entities are not the object of the experiment, but they rather constitute the mean to proceed with it cause otherwise the lack of materials will hinder the experiment.
Experimentation It tells us, to be sure, what is, but never that it must necessarily be thus and not otherwise. Now such universal cognitions, which at the same time have the character of inner necessity, must be clear and certain for themselves, independently of expe- rience; hence one calls them a priori cognitions: whereas that which is merely borrowed from experience is, as it is put, cognized only a posteriori, or empirically. What is especially remarkable is that even among our experiences, cognitions are mixed in that they must have their origin a priori and that perhaps they serve only to establish connection among our representations of the senses.
For, if one removes from our experiences everything that belongs to the senses, there still remain certain original concepts and the judgments generated from them, which must have arisen entirely a priori, therefore independently of experience. That could be said, because they make one able to say more about the objects that appear to the senses than mere experience would teach. Or at least make one believe that one can say this, and make assertions contain subjective universality and strict necessity, the likes of which merely empirical cognition can never afford.
The literature available for engineering sciences and technology has moved from predominant journal articles to a body of literature that also includes books, encyclopedia and conference proceedings, among others. Engineering science covers many aspects such as food, civil, mechanical, electrical, environmental, marine, etc. Engineers are also involved in developing engineering standards to promote and facilitate world trade. It is inevitable though that researcher may omit some information sources in any type of search that will mainly consider English-language sources, although in the case of local conferences, foreign-language materials may be included.
A critical point and consideration in research approach besides the language itself is the variability in terminology for the same or similar meanings. Such new worlds may signal new constructs, indicating lively science that is pushing against the boundaries of what is commonly used. It is prima facie plausible to postulate that there is nothing beyond understanding a text, that understanding the sentences composing it; and that there is nothing beyond understanding a sentence than understanding the words which compose it.
It is not uncommon, particularly for young researchers, to have those new worlds trouble them in understanding their readings. Language processing is a complex skill which has become routinized once one has gained experience in all important levels regarding understanding expressions: the phonologic, the semantic, the syntactic and the pragmatic.
This conscious process is often modeled as an interactive process of all relevant levels of information processing: the phonologic, the semantic, the syntactic, and the pragmatic. The process of parsing, during which the words in a linguistic expression are transformed from a written sentence into a mental representation with a combined meaning of the words, as studied by cognitive scientists, is especially relevant.
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During this procedure, the meaning of a sentence is processed phrase-by-phrase and people tend to integrate both semantic and syntactic cues, in order to achieve an incremental understanding of a statement or a text Pinker Yet alone, it was Wittgenstein who commented in his later work Philosophische Undersuchunen, on the meaningless meaning of a word as perceived by a human mind, but rather on the meaning obtained only through the actual use of this world, Wittgenstein This context of the texts that concern us constrains and limits the viable interpretations that these texts are able to bear.
The process of deconstruction —of interpretatively dissolving any and every text into a plurality of supposedly merit-equivalent construction—can and should be offset by the process of recon- struction which calls for viewing texts within their larger contexts. What lies at the heart of this epistemic activity, i. Inter-subjective intelligibility, testability with the use of evidence, rational argu- mentation and objectivity are, thus, feasible also in the case of text interpretation. A series of examples from diverse disciplines demonstrate this.
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The application of the hypothetico-deductive method is a way to show that the standards currently used when dealing with problems of expla- nation—intersubjective intelligibility, testability with the use of evidence, rational argumentation and objectivity—can also apply to problems of interpretation. It is only the institutionalization of the possibility of criticism that can lead to the correction of errors when these evaluations and choices are involved.
Our fallible judgments are all what we have here as elsewhere and enabling a critical discussion is the prerequisite of making informed choices Mantzavinos The information-seeking process is basically a context-interpretation process of the people who store different kinds of knowledge in various conceptual formats.
The fragmentation of information forces us to create the conditions of possibility for the retrieval of the pieces because their common context remains tacitly implied. The partialization opens the possibility for different perspectives of interpretation. Secondly, it must satisfy the criterion of demarcation, i. Thirdly, it must be a system distinguished in some way from other such systems as the one which represents our world of experience. Finally, though subject to change under trans- mission, it is not on this account devoid of truth, rather is meaning the instrument through which truthfulness makes its appearance in the life-world.
Hermeneutic cycle was conceived in terms of the mutual relationship between the text as a whole and its individual parts, or in terms of the relation between text and tradition. With Heidegger, however, the hermeneutic cycle refers to something com- pletely different: the interplay between our self-understanding and our understanding of the world.
The hermeneutic cycle is no longer perceived as a helpful procedural tool, but entails a cognitional task with which each of us is confronted. What matters Heidegger claims, is the attempt to enter the cycle in the right way. A suitable investigation into the ontological conditions of the system that ought to work back on the way in which universal cognition is led, is essential in the initiation of the cycle. What is needed is therefore not just an analysis of the way in which we de facto are trained by history but a set of quasi-transcendental principles of validity in terms of which the claims of the tradition may be subjected to evaluation.
For Habermas, reason should be the basis of the consensus upon which communication depends, not authority. Hermeneutics, Habermas argues, must be completed by a critical theory of society. Following the above expressions of hermeneutics and attempting a transfer of the philosophical to technological sector, we may claim the parallel compliance to each other. Such a method may only be applicable within the classes of knowledge, rather than the individual knowledge points. In addition to meanings seen on the basis of a common tradition of interpretation with its presumption of historical continuity , legitimacy can be gained by other meanings independently of any presumption that there exists a historical continuity of meaning with the source through a common tradition of life, action, and inter- pretation.
Nevertheless, the information is an opportunity for characteristic formations within the hidden dimension of language. The information can become a voice within the polyphonic nature of human logos, if and only if it is interrelated to the whole range of its hidden potentialities.
If it is not, then we will have no more than an information society. Data collection and analysis, sets off the cycle of understanding. Further unfold of experimentation, connected to the parallel unfold of knowledge and hence, understanding of nature, constitutes the cycle of understanding anticipation, con- taining normative implications for research.
This truth construction accommodates the characteristics of the phenomenal world but is not determined by them Schultz ; Weber In natural sciences, data are coming from the empirical experiences of the researchers, either via direct or most of the times indirect means, tools and equipment. That is in particular, called raw data, even though if it is very frequently the outcome of a software or other type of treatment applied on the analysis experienced in regard to a phe- nomenon taking place during the experiment.
A further process of the raw data may be required in order to closely approach, form or imply an answer to the initial question. Then, it is also possible that treated data requires an additional writing skill which as mentioned already could be expressed and interpreted on an individual base, yet alone that the individuals collecting the data may be different from those analyzing it and even writing about it. Furthermore, data rarely tells a simple univocal story, and this should not come as a surprise!
We may say so, since although there are many variations of research strategies that represent various ways of comforting a common set of problems, but besides the nomenclature differences, in the midst of variety, many familiar ideas may be encountered.